What is Fungal Infections Type of Fungal Infections – AC

Fungal Infections Fungi is neither included in plants nor animals.It is a primitive organism. Fungal diseases are caused by fungi, that are present in the environment most of the time. Most of the fungi are not harmful to our health, but some can even cause death. There are different types of fungi that cause different type of infection. These infections usually progress slowly.

Fungi grows in two forms:

  • Yeasts: Single rounded cells
  • Molds: Cells in long, thin threads which is called as hyphae.
  • Some fungi undergo both forms during their life cycle.

Fungi grow in soil and decaying plant material. Some fungi can also be seen with the naked eye. It reproduces by spreading spores. These spores are present in air and soil, where they can be inhaled or come into contact with the upper surface of body, mostly the skin. Fungal infections usually start in the lungs and the skins.

TYPES OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS:

Fungal infections are described as primary or opportunistic. They may affect many areas (systemic) or only in one area (localized).

PRIMARY FUNGAL INFECTION:

It can affect those people that are having a normal immune system. Certain primary infections are more common in certain geographic areas which include the following examples:

  • Histoplasmosis

It is an infection that is caused when the body comes in contact with the droppings of bird and bats in humid areas. It is mostly common in Ohio, Mississippi River valleys, central New York and Texas in UN.

  • Blastomycosis

It is a disease caused by parasitic fungi, that affects the internal organs or the skin. It is common in the people living in central and eastern United State.

  • Paracoccidioidomycosis

It is caused by Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis, a infection that affects the membranes of the skin. It mostly occurs in South and Central America.

  • Coccidiodomycosis

It is serious fungal disease of the lungs and the other tissues. It is most common in the arid regions of America.

OPPORTUNISTIC FUNGAL INFECTION:

This type of fungal infection that affects in person having weakened immune system. They occur worldwide. They can be very aggressive and spread to other organs which can lead to death. They include:

  • Aspergillosis
  • Candidiasis
  • Mucormycosis

LOCALIZED FUNGAL INFECTION:

They affect only one area of the body and don’t spread most of the times. These include:

Tinea:

It is a kind of fungal infection that affects hair, skin, or nails. When it's on the skin, tinea usually begins as a small red circle the size of a pea. It spreads out in a circle or ring, when it grows. Tinea is also called ringworm because it may look like tiny circles are on the skin. Because the fungi that cause tinea (ringworm) live on different parts of the body, they are named for the part of the body they infect. Scalp ringworm is found on the head, and body ringworm affects any other skin areas.

Athlete's foot:

It is another type of fungal infection that mostly affects the area between the toes but can also affect toenails and the bottom or sides of the feet.

Jock itch:

It is a fungal infection that affects the groin and upper thighs. It is a misconception that only males get it, but girls and women can get it, too.

Candida:

It is a yeast, similar to a fungus. It most often affects the skin around the nails or the soft, moist areas around body openings. Diaper rash in babies can be from one type of candidal infection . Older girls and women may develop another form of candidal infection in and around the vagina. This is a yeast infection.

Pityriasis versicolor:

It's a rash caused by a fungus that normally lives on human skin. It can appear over the chest, shoulders, and back, and is common in teenagers.

ANTIFUNGAL MEDICATIONS:

Some drugs are effective against fungal infections. They may be applied directly onto the area or taken by mouth. Some antifungal drugs are also injected when there is a need to treat a serious infection. These drugs include:

  • Amphotericin B:

This drug is used to treat many of the fungal infections. It is also used to treat Chills, fever, headache, vomiting, a low potassium level* in the blood, kidney failure, and anemia.

  • Anidulafungin
  • Caspofungin
  • Micafungin

It is used to treat aspergilosis infections.

  • Fluconazole

It is used to treat Candidal and other fungal infections, including coccidioidomycosis and cryptococcal infections. It also treats Nausea, rash, and liver inflammation.

  • Flucytosine

It is used to cure Candidal and cryptococcal infections. It also cures Nausea, vomiting, and bone marrow damage

  • Isavuconazole

It is used to treat Aspergillosis and mucormycosis. It also helps to cure Nausea, vomiting, and liver inflammation.

  • Itraconazole

It helps to treat Fungal skin infections, histoplasmosis, and other fungal infections. It also cures the symptoms of Nausea, diarrhea, liver inflammation, rash, headache, dizziness, a low potassium level* in the blood, high blood pressure, accumulation of fluid (edema), and rarely heart failure.

  • Posaconazole

It is used to treat Aspergillus, candidal, and many other fungal infections. Also cures Nausea, vomiting, rash, and rarely liver inflammation.

  • Voriconazole

It is used to treat Aspergillus and candidal infections, fusariosis, and scedosporiosis. It helps to cure temporary disturbances in vision (such as blurred vision, changes in color vision, and sensitivity to light) , nausea, vomiting, rash, and liver.

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