Parkinson’s disease Must know Causes of Parkinson’s Disease

TITLE: PARKINSON’S DISEASE

META TITLE: Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of nervous system which kills the dopamine producing cells. It is not fatal. It tends to affect the movement of the body.

Parkinson’s disease is a chronic disorder of central nervous system which mainly affects the nerve cells present in the motor system in the brain that produce dopamine. This disease starts to kill the dopamine producing cells present in sustantia nigra. It mainly tends to affect the movement of the body which tends to start with just a minor tremor in one hand. It may cause stiffness or slowing in movement of body. It also causes a condition of dementia which is mainly a defect in behavior and thinking abilities in extreme conditions.

Other names of Parkinson’s disease are paralysis agitans, idiopathic, primary parkinsonism and hypokinetic rigid syndrome.

Researches have found that about 1 million people living in the US are suffering with parkinson’s disease. The cause of this disease is primarily unknown and there is no cure.

CAUSES OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE:

Parkinson’s disease is mainly idiopathic which means is has no specific cause. But some cases are related to genetic factors and environmental causes. A number of causes are associated with parkinson’s disease which include:

  • Having a exposure to pesticides like paraquat and rotenone
  • Drinking contaminated water
  • Several head injuries (mainly in the area of mid brain)
  • Exposure to heavy metal like organochlorines and chlorpyrifos

These factors causes mutation in specific genes present in the DNA. These genes are  parkin (PRKN), PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 ( PINK1), DJ-1, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), ATP13A2 and Alpha synuclein (SNCA). This mutation leads to parkinson’s disease. It also have shown that these genes are related to the function of lysosomes (organelle that digest waste matter) and mutation in these genes causes the break down neurons and cells.

SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE:

Symptoms of parkinson’s disease changes as the progression of disease. These symptoms are not noticeable even by the person having this disease. These symptoms appear in the ages of 50 and 60. The symptoms of parkinson’s disease include:

  • A tremor or shaking in several parts of body.
  • Stiff and rigid muscles.
  • Impaired postures and balance
  • Difficulty in perform automatic functions and movements
  • Bradykinesia (Slow movement)

DIAGNOSIS:

Parkinson’s disease is diagnosed with help of neurological examination. Brain scan are also taken sometimes which tends to identify this disease in a person by the presence of Lewy bodies in the mid brain. Physicians also diagnose this disease by symptoms that the patients exhibit.

TREATMENT:

Currently, there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, but there are some medications, palliative care, multidisciplinary management and surgery that can help to relief the symptoms of this disease.

DRUGS:

  • Levadopa: Several drugs are included in this category that help to treat the symptoms of parkinson’s disease such as Carbidopa, Benserazide, Tolcapone and Entacapone.
  • Dopamine agonists: They include pergolide, apomorphine andlisuride, piribedil,bromocriptine,pramipexoleropinirole and cabergoline.
  • MAO-B inhibitors: These include selegiline and rasagiline.
  • Amantadine, anticholinergics, quetiapine and modafinil.

Surgery:

Parkinson disease was treated by surgery in the past years but with the discovery of levadopa, the surgeries related to this disease had been declined.

Rehabilitation:

Many cases of Parkinson’s disease had been treated with exercise and rehabilitation with the help of physiotherapist.

PREVENTION:

As we know the clear cause of parkinson’s disease is unknown, just like that, proper ways and factors to prevent this disease is also a mystery. However, in 1997, some researches has shown that taking antioxidant like vitamin C and D in diet have been effective to prevent this disease. Caffeine which is present in coffee, cola and tea may reduce the risk to develop this disease. Green tea also works to prevent this disease.

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