Diabetes is known as the mother of diseases. Its a life long disease that affects your entire body by disturbing the way your body handles glucose and other sugars in your blood. Mainly it increases the sugar level in the patient’s blood. Patients having diabetes undergo the conditions of polyuria which is characterized as frequent urination, polydipsia which is known as becoming thirsty increasingly, and polydipsia which is known as becoming increasingly hungry.
There are three types of diabetes which are:
- Diabetes type 1
- Diabetes type 2
- Gestational diabetes
Diabetes type 1 happens when the pancreas fails to produce required quantity of insulin. This is also known as ‘’Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus’’ or IDDM. Previously it was known as ‘’Juvenile diabetes’’.
Diabetes type 2 is a condition in which the cells lose the ability to respond to insulin. Lack of sugar controlling insulin also happens as the disease progresses. This type of diabetes is also known as ‘’Non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM). It was primarily known as ‘’Adult-onset diabetes’’.
Gestational diabetes occurs only in pregnant women and they develop high blood sugar level.
Diabetes type 2 has been more common than diabetes type 1. About 90% of the adults in UK have been diagnosed with diabetes type 2. Researches from American Diabetes Association have shown that about 3.9 million of Americans are living with diabetes.
In 1996, there were 1.4 million people with diabetes and it is estimated that about 5 million people will be having diabetes till the year 2025 in America.
Sometimes it happens that your blood sugar level is higher then the normal, then you may have the risk of developing diabetes and this condition is known as prediabetes.
CAUSES OF DIABETES:
The exact cause of diabetes is not known but there are factors and certain conditions that result in diabetes. There are different causes for different types of diabetes.
- Cause of Diabetes type 1:
Diabetes type 1 happens when the insulin producing beta cells present in the islet of Langerhans in pancreas are reduced than normally. This happens when the T cell mediated autoimmune attacks and which leads to the loss of beta cells which in turn kills insulin. This can affect the children or adults.
- Cause of diabetes type 2:
This affects the insulin secretion which tends to reduce it. It changes the cell’ s response to insulin. There are certain receptors at the cells to catch insulin. This type of diabetes is caused by obesity, poor diet, stress and by excessive consumption of glucose. This is the most common form of diabetes.
- Cause of Gestational Diabetes:
This affects about 2 to 10% of the pregnant ladies and can develop into diabetes mellitus after the pregnancy. However, the cause of this type diabetes is still unknown but researches have found that dietary and blood glucose changes may be the cause of this condition.
SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES:
The main symptoms of diabetes include:
- Increased thirst
- Frequent urination
- Excessive weight loss
- Itching in different parts of body
- Slow healing of wounds
- Blurred vision
TREATMENT OF DIABETES:
Main treatment for diabetes is occurs by controlling the blood glucose level. This can be done by changing lifestyle and eating habits.
Type 1 diabetes can be treated by taking insulin in any form. This can be injected with the help of syringes, insulin pump and pre filled pens.
Short acting insulin: regular
- Insulin aspart (NovoLog) (FlexPen)
- Insulin glulisine ( Apidra)
- Insulin lispro ( Humalog)
- Insulin isophane (Humulin, Novolin, Iletin)
- Insulin detemir (Levemir)
- Insulin glargine (Lantus)
- Pramlintide ( SymlinPen 120, SymlinPen 60)
Type 2 diabetes is treated by certain non- insulin medications, insulin, weight loss and by changing diet.
- Acarbose (Precose)
- Migitol (Glyset)
- Metformin (Glucophage, Metformin Hydrochloride ER, Glumetza, Riomet, Fortamet).
- Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
- Nateglinide (Starlex)
- Repaglinide (Pradin)
- Alogliptin and pioglitazone (Oseni)
- and Simvastatin
Prevention is better than cure. Diabetes can be prevented by following daily habits:
- Taking a ADA diet, which is balanced, full of nutrition and low in fat and glucose.
- By controlling the weight.
- Exercising daily.
- Avoiding sweetened drinks and alcohol.