What is Depression? What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Depression – AC

Feeling down, sadness and taking less pleasure and interest in daily activities-means that depression has affected you.

According to World Health Organization (WHO), depression is at the top of the list of the most common illness and disability. About 350 million people are affected with depression. Women are more likely to get into the trance of depression then men.

Depression is a disorder related to mood. It can affect thoughts, feelings and behavior of people. Depressed people can continuously feel sad, helpless, anxious, empty, irritable, guilty, worthless, ashamed, restless and hopeless. Mood swings, anxiousness and sadness are normal reactions to depressed people lives. Depression is like ‘’living in a black hole’’. It is much more than just stress or sadness. It takes your soul out of your body.

Depressed people lose interest in their daily lives, experience loss of appetite or start over eating, experience insomnia, sleeplessness, fatigue, digestive problems, aches, pain and fatigue. They have problems making decisions which causes them to commit suicide.

Depression is a persistent disease and it can be easily treated in a short span of time. Depression is also identified by different terms, which include:

  • Persistent depressive disorder
  • Dysthymia
  • Major depression
  • Clinical depression
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Dysphoric disorder

CAUSES OF DEPRESSION:

The cause of depression is not clearly known and understood. It is likely to be caused by a combination of various factors, which include:

  • Biological effects-which are due to changes dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic neurotransmitter levels theorized.
  • Environmental effect
  • Psychological and social effects
  • Genetic effects

More than that, some normal people are at the highest risk of getting depression because of some factors which play a great role and they include:

  • Life events such as a divorce, unemployment etc. play a great role in causing depression.
  • Genetic causes may cause the individual responses to events that trigger depression.
  • Chidhood trauma can cause brain changes resulting in fear and stress.
  • Drugs including corticosteroid, beta blockers, reserpine and interferon can cause depression.
  • Alcohol and amphetamines can cause depression.
  • A previous head injury
  • Diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can cause depression.

SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION:

If you have been experiencing some of the following signs and symptoms most of the day, nearly every day, for at least two weeks, you are suffering from depression:

  • Feelings of hopelessness, or pessimism
  • Irritability
  • Appetite and/or weight changes
  • Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
  • Feeling restless or having trouble sitting still
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities
  • Decreased energy or fatigue
  • Moving or talking more slowly
  • Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood
  • Difficulty sleeping, early-morning awakening, or oversleeping
  • Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems without a clear physical cause and/or that do not ease even with treatment

TREATMENTS FOR DEPRESSION:

Depression is mental disorder that cannot be treated fully in a short span of time. But it can be treated within proper time and care. Usually a psychiatrist, general practitioner and a physician can manage and treat depressed people.

There are 3 factors that helps to treat and manage depression:

  • Pschotherapy

Psychotherapy includes cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy and problem solving treatment.

  • Support

It ranges from discussing solutions to contribute stresses that educate the family members.

  • Drug treatment

Drug treatment include antidepressant medications, which are prescribed by the doctor or a psychiatrist. These medicines provide primary medical care treatment to treat depression gradually.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

  • (Celexa)
  • Escitalopram (Lexapro)
  • (Prozac)
  • Paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva)
  • Sertraline (Zoloft)

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

  • Isocarboxzaid (Marplan)
  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
  • Selegiline (Emsam skin patch)
  • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)
  • Tranylcypromine (Phenelzine)

Tricyclic antidepressants

  • Amitriptyline (Elavil)
  • (Tofranil)
  • Nortriptyline (Pamelor)
  • Protriptyline (Vivactil)
  • Trimipramine (Surmontil)

Atypical Antidepressants

  • Bupropion (Wellbutrin)
  • Maprotiline
  • Mirtazapine (Remeron)
  • Nefazodone
  • Trazodone

Selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI)

  • Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq)
  • Duloxetine (Cymbalta)
  • Venlafaxine (Effexor)

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